Glossary of "Plant Biology (1st ed.)" by Graham et al. (2003)
- A form of asexual reproduction in which certain flowering plants produce seeds without fertilization.
Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
- Parthenogenetic reproduction in which an individual develops from one or more mitotically produced cells that have not experienced recombination or syngamy.
- Graham, L. E., Graham, J. M. & Wilcox, L. W. 2003. Plant Biology. -xxxv + 497 pp. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.