Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
- Derivation of the gene copies in one or more populations from a single ancestral copy viewed retrospectively (from the present back into the past).
Glossary of "Ancestors in Our Genome" by Harris (2015)
- proceeding back into evolutionary time, the confluence of two gene lineages into a single common ancestral gene.
Glossary of "Molecular Systematics (2nd ed.)" by Hillis et al. (1996)
- The evolutionary process viewed backward through time, so that allelic diversity is traced back through mutations to ancestral alleles. Coalescent theory can be used to make predictions about effective population sizes, ages and frequencies of alleles, selection, rates of mutation, or time to common ancestry of a set of alleles.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Harris, E. E. 2015. Ancestors in Our Genome: the New Science of Human Evolution. - xx + 226 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Hillis, D. M., Moritz, C. & Mable, B. K. 1996. Molecular Systematics, 2nd ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.