Glossary of "Plant Biology (1st ed.)" by Graham et al. (2003)
- Plants in which male (staminate) and female (carpellate) flowers are found on separate plants, such as holly, date palm, and willow.
Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
- Of a species, consisting of distinct female and male individuals.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- Pertaining to organisms in which the two sexes are "housed" in two different individuals, so that eggs and sperm are not produced in the same individuals. Examples: humans, fruit flies, date palms. (Contrast with monoecious.)
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Graham, L. E., Graham, J. M. & Wilcox, L. W. 2003. Plant Biology. -xxxv + 497 pp. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River.