Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- The changes in ecological processes in a community caused by physical and biological factors originating in an adjacent community.
Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- An effect that occurs following the forming of a forest island; in the early phases the species diversity along the edge is greater than in the interior. Species escape from the cut are and seek refuge in the border of the forest, where some may last only a short time.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.