Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- Natural perturbation of the physical earth system that effects global climate. Characterized by development of warm oceanic waters in the eastern part of the tropical Pacific Ocean, a weakening or reversal of the trade winds, and weakening or even reversal of the equatorial ocean currents. Reoccurs periodically and effects the atmosphere and global temperature by pumping heat into the atmosphere.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.