Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- A school, or theory, in philosophy that deals with the ethical value of the environment, including especially the rights of nonhuman objects and systems in the environment, for example, trees and ecosystems.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.