Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- The initial phase of photosynthesis, in which light energy is converted into chemical energy.
Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)
- A series of biochemical reactions of photosynthesis in plants, occurring in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and requiring light as an energy source, during which water is broken down into hydrogen ions, electrons, and molecular oxygen, and producing high-energy ATP and NADPH2, which are utilized in the dark reactions.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.