Mon Yamada Okuda 2022

提供: 広島大学デジタル博物館

Mon et al. (2022)

  • Mon, S. M., Yamada, T. & Okuda, T. 2022. Livelihood diversification: Is it a measure to control the forest encroachment problem? A case study in a state-owned reserved forest of southern Shan state, Myanmar. Hikobia 18: 221-229.


Livelihood diversification is a coping strategy for destressing or increasing the income of rural households, while promoting sustainable land management. This study was conducted in enclave settlements inside state-owned forests where land encroachment is prohibited. The primary objective was to examine whether livelihood diversification can help control the forest encroachment problem. A household questionnaire survey was conducted in four villages with different level of accessibility. The agricultural land area was calculated for three periods: 2002, 2002–2013, and 2013–2021. The rates of changes were compared these periods. The results demonstrated that encroachment continues, regardless of the policy intervention for livelihood development. We observed four patterns of livelihood diversification and encroachment: 1) highest diversity with a low-income level and an increased rate of encroachment, 2) high diversity with a high-income level and increased rate of encroachment, 3) low diversity with a high-income level and decreased rate of encroachment, and 4) low diversity with a low-income level and decreased rate of encroachment. From this study, it can be concluded that livelihood diversity cannot halt land encroachment. Intensification of non-farm activities and socio-economic factors must be considered in the management of forest encroachment.