Glossary of Lichens by Purvis (2000)
- Derived from two or more ancestral lines. Lichen fungi do not share a common ancestor and have evolved on at least four separate occasions.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- Pertaining to a group that consists of multiple distantly related organisms, and does not include the common ancestor of the group. (Contrast with monophyletic, paraphyletic.)
Glossary of "The Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.)" by Willis & McElwain (2014)
- With evolutionary descent from more than one group. A polyphyletic group does not contain an ancestral species common to all taxa.
- Purvis, W. 2000. Lichens. 112 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Willis, K. J. & McElwain, J. C. 2014. The Evolution of Plants, 2nd ed. -ix + 398 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.