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Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)

  • in a broad sense, the living together of two or more organisms of different species; in a narrow sense, synonymous with mutualism.

Glossary of "Lichens" by Purvis (2000)

  • The living together of unlike organisms; it may be for mutual benefit or not.

Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)

  • The living together of two or more species in a prolonged and intimate relationship.

Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)

  • An interaction between individuals of two different species that benefits both. For example, lichens contain an alga and a fungus that require each other to persist. Sometimes this term is used broadly, so that domestic corn and people could be said to have a symbiotic relationship—domestic corn cannot reproduce without the aid of people, and some people survive because they have corn to eat.


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