convergent evolution (convergence)
Glossary of "Plant Biology (1st ed.)" by Graham et al. (2003)
- The process by which unrelated organisms in a similar environment evolve similar adaptive structures and physiology.
Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
- Evolution of similar features independently in different evolutionary lineages, usually from different antecedent features or by different developmental pathways.
Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- The process by which species evolve in different places or different times and, although they have different genetic heritages, develop similar external forms and structures as a result of adaptation to similar environments. The similarity in the shapes of sharks and porpoises is an example of convergent evolution.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Graham, L. E., Graham, J. M. & Wilcox, L. W. 2003. Plant Biology. -xxxv + 497 pp. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River.