Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- The process of the development of an ecological community or ecosystem, usually viewed as a series of stages—early, middle, late mature (or climax), and sometimes postclimax. Primary succession is an original establishment; secondary succession is a reestablishment.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.