Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- A device that produces electricity directly from a chemical reaction in a specially designed cell. In the simplest case the cell uses hydrogen as a fuel, to which an oxidant is supplied. The hydrogen is combined with oxygen as if the hydrogen were burned, but the reactants are separated by an electrolyte solution that facilitates the migration of ions and the release of electrons (which may be tapped as an energy source).
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.