Glossary of "Plant Systematics (3rd ed.)" by Judd et al. (2008)
- Similarity due to inheritance of a feature from a common ancestor.
Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- (1) Two characters that pass the similarity, conjunction and congruence tests are termed homologous. Also known as synapomorphy. (2) Character states that share modifications from another condition, e.g. wings of birds in relation to forelimbs of other tetrapods. See also convergence, parallelism, primary homology, secondary homology
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- A similarity between two or more features that is due to inheritance from a common ancestor. The structures are said to be homologous, and each is a homolog of the others. (Contrast with analogy.)
Glossary of "Plant Systematics (1st ed.)" by Simpson (2006)
- Similarity that is the result of common ancestry Adj: homologous.
Glossary of "Ancestors in Our Genome" by Harris (2015)
- features in organisms that were inherited from their shared common ancestor. Also genes in different species, present at the same locus or position on a chromosome, which were inherited from a common ancestor.
- Harris, E. E. 2015. Ancestors in Our Genome: the New Science of Human Evolution. - xx + 226 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Judd, W. S., Campbell, C. S., Kellogg, E. A., Stevens, P. F., Donoghue, M. J. 2008. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 3rd ed. -xv + 611 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.