Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)
- organism that furnishes food, shelter, or other benefits to anther organism of a different species.
Glossary of "The Kew Plant Glossary (rev. ed.)" by Beentje (2012)
- the plant on which a prasite grows, and from which the parasite derives its food.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
"A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (2nd ed.)" by Lincoln et al. (1998)
- 1: Any organism that provides food or shelter for another organism; the inhabited symbiont in an endosymbiosis q.v. or the exhabited symbiont in an exosymbiosis q.v.; may be a definitive host (infected by the mature adult stage) or an intermediate host (infected by developmental stages). 2: An animal that is the recipient of a tissue graft.
- Beentje, H. 2012. The Kew Plant Glossary: An Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms, Revised Edition. -xii + 164 pp. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P. 1998. A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. ix + 361 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.