Glossary of "Biogeography (9th ed.)" by Cox et al. (2016)
- Species that are slower to reproduce than r-selected species (q.v.), but are more able to sustain their population when this is close to the carrying capacity (q.v.). Characteristic of later colonists in a succession.
- Cox, C. B., Moore, P. D. & Ladle, R. J. 2016. Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach, 9th ed. - xiii + 482 pp. Wiley Blackwell, Chichester.