- (nc) 栄養，栄養物，栄養素，栄養になる物； (adj) 栄養を含む，滋養になる （日本語）
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- A food substance; or, in the case of mineral nutrients, an inorganic element required for completion of the life cycle of an organism.
Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- nutrients: Chemicals such as phosphorus and nitrogen that, when released into water sources, may cause pollution events such as eutrophication.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.