Glossary of Ecology (6th ed.) by Krebs (2009)
- in population estimation, a population that has natality, mortality, immigration, or emigration during the interval of study.
"A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (2nd ed.)" by Lincoln et al. (1998)
- A population freely exposed to gene exchange with other populations; in ecology, a population that undergoes a change in size or composition through births, deaths or movements during a specified period; cf. closed population.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P. 1998. A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. ix + 361 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.