Glossary of "Plant Systematics (1st ed.)" by Simpson (2006)
- A plant living more than 2 years. (duration)
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
Glossary of "The Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.)" by Willis & McElwain (2014)
- Plant that lives for many years, surviving inclement seasons in underground storage (e.g. bulbs) or perennating organs (e.g. rhizomes) or persisting above ground, sometimes with loss of foliage (e.g. deciduous trees).
Glossary of "A Botanist's Vocabulary" by Pell & Angell (2016)
- Living and reproducing for more than two years, i.e., sets seed multiple times over its life.
- Synonym: polycarpic.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Willis, K. J. & McElwain, J. C. 2014. The Evolution of Plants, 2nd ed. -ix + 398 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Pell, S. K. & Angell, B. 2016. A Botanist's Vocabulary: 1300 Terms Explained and Illustrated. 226 pp. Timber Press, Portland.