Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- A character or transformation series is said to be polarized when the direction of character change or evolution has been specified, thereby determining the relative plesiomorphy and apomorphy of the characters or character states. See also direction, order.
Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)
- The designation of relative ancestry to the character states of a transformation series/morphocline.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- (1) In chemistry, the property of unequal electron sharing in a covalent bond that defines a polar molecule. (2) In development, the difference between one end of an organism or structure and the other.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.