Glossary of "Plant Systematics (1st ed.)" by Simpson (2006)
- A generally cylindrical organ that bears leaves, typically functioning in support and elevation of leaves and reproductive structures and in conduction of water, minerals, and sugars; in vascular plants initially derived from the epicotyl of the embryo and generally growing upward. (plant part)
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- In plants, the organ that holds leaves and/or flowers and transports and distributes materials among the other organs of the plant.
Glossary of "A Botanist's Vocabulary" by Pell & Angell (2016)
- The part of the plant from which leaves and buds emerge at nodes, usually above ground but sometimes below ground.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Pell, S. K. & Angell, B. 2016. A Botanist's Vocabulary: 1300 Terms Explained and Illustrated. 226 pp. Timber Press, Portland.