Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- An approach to cladistic analysis that uses only the distributions of characters among taxa to hypothesize group membership. All other properties of both characters and groups (e.g. polarity, monophyly, transformation series) are derived from the resulting cladogram. Cf. transformational approach.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.