2021年5月5日 (水) 14:57時点における最新版
- 中西 稔・生塩正義・井上正鉄. 1975. 厳島（宮島）の地衣類. 天然記念物瀰山原始林・特別名勝厳島緊急調査委員会（編）, 厳島の自然, 総合学術調査研究報告, pp. 377-393 + pls. XLVI-XLVII. 宮島町, 広島. [Nakanishi, M., Oshio, M. & Inoue, M. 1975. Lichens of Itsukushima (Miyajima) Island, southwestern Japan. In Committee for the Urgent Investigation of the Primeval Forest and Scenic Reserves of Itsukushima (Miyajima) Island (ed.), Land and Life in Itsukushima, Scientific Studies of Itsukushima Island, Southwestern Japan, pp. 377-393 + pls. XLVI-XLVII. Miyajima-cho, Hiroshima.]
- Miyajima Island is situated on the Seto Inland Sea about 20 km southwest of Hiroshima City, covering an area of 30.2 km2. The island consists of granite rock and is mountainous with three main peaks, Misen (529.8 m), Komagabayashi (509 m) and Iwafune (466.6 m). Slopes of the mountains are very steep and everywhere exposed rocks and precipitous cliffs can be seen. Furthermore, many places are rich in boulders suited for the growth of lichens.
- Part of the island has been conserved as a natural monument representing the primeval forest of southwestern Japan. According to previous studies the vegetation of the island is divided into two parts; the lower, warm-temperate zone and the upper, intermediate conifer forest zone. The forest of the lower zone is mainly composed of Pinus densiflora, Pasania glabra, Neolitsea aciculata, Symplocos glauca and Myrsine seguinii, and the upper zone of Tsuga sieboldii, Abies firma, Sciadopitys verticillata, Quercus acuta, Q. salicina, Illicium religiosum, etc. Lichens are more abundant in the upper zone.
- In the present repot are enumerated 131 species in 43 genera, with some varieties, of lichens, collected on the island mostly during 1960-1974. Some genera of crustose lichens which need further study are excluded from the list. Fore many of the species listed taxonomical and/or phytogeographical notes are given.
- Recently several air pollutants, mostly sulfer dioxide, have emanated from the coastal manufacturing area of the mainland 4-8 km southwest of Miyajima Island. Thousands of pine trees died and were cut down. Such a situation has brought about a change in the lichen flora, too.
- Some of the species previously reported from the island were not detected in this study. They include Usnea bayleyi, Parmelia laevior, Cetrelia cetrarioides, Leptogium caesium, L. delavayi, L. menziesii, L. tremelloides, Anaptychia dissecta, A. palmulata, A. hypochraea, Nephroma helveticum, Cladonia nemoxyna, Lobaria crassior, L. isidiosa, L. japonica, Pseudocyphellaria aurata, P. mougeotiana (=crocata), Coccocarpia pellita, etc. They are considered to have decreased or disappeared from Miyajima with the increase in air pollution and consequent forest denudation.